Five key conundrums from Ethiopia’s peace accord | Conflict news
On Tuesday, the Ethiopian government and the Tigra People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) agreed to a “permanent cessation of hostilities”. Effectively ending ten days of talks led by the African Union in South Africa and the civil war that began in November 2020.
The two sides in the conflict, which has killed thousands and displaced millions in the northern region of Tigray, agreed to an “orderly, smooth and systematic disarmament” and “restoration of law and order,” according to former Nigerian president Olusegun Obasanjo, the chief negotiator. in negotiations.
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed welcomed the progress and said his “commitment to peace remains unwavering” in a statement released afterward.
“Our commitment to cooperate in the implementation of the agreement is equally strong,” he added.
The landmark deal brings an end to the conflict, which has seen “war crimes and crimes against humanity”. made by both parties, according to the UN Committee of Experts on Human Rights.
Here are five key provisions from the agreement, which stipulates that both sides reject “violence as a method of resolving political differences” in the future.
“Ethiopia has only one defense force”.
A war broke out In November 2020, the federal government of Ethiopia sent troops to the region after the TPLF accused Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of centralizing power at the expense of the regions. It pitted regional forces from Tigray against the Ethiopian Federal Army and its allies from other regions and neighboring Eritrea.
In Tuesday’s agreement, both sides “agree and acknowledge” that the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has “only one defense force.” Therefore, there will be a Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) program for TPLF fighters.
After the signing of the agreement, both sides have 30 days to agree on a timetable for the total disarmament of the TPLF, including light and heavy weapons.
Representation and inclusion for Tigranians
Based on the agreement, the two sides agreed to restore the federal government of Ethiopia in Tigray.
The TPLF has pledged to respect the federal government’s constitutional powers and “stop all attempts to effect an unconstitutional coup”.
In return, the Ethiopian government has pledged to end hostilities against the TPLF, restore basic services in the region and remove the “terrorist” designation of TPLF fighters.
The federal government has also agreed to ensure and improve the representation of the Tigray region in federal institutions, including parliament, which could be important as the region has protested years of marginalization by the federal government in Addis Ababa.
Since June 2021, when Tigrayan rebels retook the region from federal forces, the Ethiopian government has cut off basic services there, leaving people with food shortages and access to basic utilities.
Because of this and the ongoing violence, trucks carrying humanitarian aid have been hit failed to deliver food in the area.
In September, the truck belonging to the World Food Program was struck by debris from a drone attack and hurt the truck driver. The officials of the hospital also previously warned about the consumption of food and medical supplies in some institutions of the province.
According to the United Nations, more than 13 million people are in need of food aid in northern Ethiopia.
The federal government has now committed itself, with the help of humanitarian agencies, to allow unhindered access to aid to address these needs, especially for women, children and the elderly. The government also agreed to facilitate the timely return of those displaced outside the region.
The leaders of Ethiopia and Tigray must ensure that aid is used only for humanitarian purposes.
“Immediate and permanent cessation of hostilities”.
The federal government and the TPLF both agreed to “cease overt and covert acts of violence” as well as end “hostile propaganda, rhetoric and hate speech” against both sides.
Both parties agree not only to respect the FDRE constitution, but also to respect fundamental human rights to protect civilians and ensure accountability in accordance with the constitution and the Union’s Transnational Justice Policy Framework.
Protection of civilians
The agreement also included the protection of the civilian population, especially the millions of people who were displaced Because of the violence in Tigray.
The deal also called for an end to sexual and gender-based violence and abuse against children, women and the elderly, as well as the recruitment of child soldiers. There have been numerous reports suggesting that the TPLF has recruited child soldiers and that federal and allied forces have used rape as a weapon.
In April 2021, the UN Security Council issued its first joint statement on the ongoing crisis, expressing “deep concern” over allegations of human rights violations, including: sexual violence against women and girls.
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